Ankara is the heart of modern Turkey. It was a small town with a population of ten thousand souls at the beginning of 20th century. It became the center of the resistance movement against invasion forces after the First World War. The independence movement established a new parliament in Ankara when the invasion forces closed the Ottoman Parliament in Istanbul. Then the new parliament declared war to invading forces of Britain, France, Italy and Greece and in a couple of years Anatolia was free of invading forces. Independence War was first against invasion forces but then it turned against collaborators too. The Parliament under leadership of Mustafa Kemal accused the last Sultan as being a collaborator and sent him to exile in 1922. The parliament established republic in 1923 and decided Ankara as the new capital. The following year the last Caliph, the Muslim religious leader went to exile too.

The new Republic of Turkey was formed as a new state and society by the abolishment of the sultanate and caliphate and many more reforms. Many educated people from Istanbul went to this town in the middle of step land to take part in the new administration system. However, a poet of the time expressed the feelings of some other intellectuals: “The best thing about Ankara was to return to Istanbul.”

Ankara has more than three million populations because of rapid urbanization in Turkey after the Second World War. Ankara city center today is dominated by the Parliament, the House of the President, and the Offices of the Ministers and the Headquarters of the Army, Navy and the Air Force. The Mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk attracts hundreds of thousands of Turks every year.

Along with its importance for the history of modern Turkey, Ankara castle has been a settlement for thousands of years.

The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in the castle hill slope is one of its best in the world with its artifacts. Even the museum buildings are extremely interesting structures from 15th century.
There are Roman ruins on the skirts of the castle hill. The foundation part of the Roman baths shows incredible size of the once Roman structure.

The high walls of the Temple of Augustus and Roma have Greek and Latin inscriptions that tell us the deeds of the deified Augustus the Roman Emperor. It is just leaning on to 15th century Haci Bayram Veli Mosque, which was and is important part of the Ankara’s religious life.

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