Pergamon is the capital of the one of the four Macedonian kingdoms that were established after the death of Alexander the Great. It is the best site to see Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine defense wall masonry. There is a spectacular view from the citadel on the top of the hill overlooking the plain, hills and far away sea.

On the top of the hill called the Acropolis (upper city), there is the ruins of the Temple of Trajan worthwhile to see its’ foundation construction in order to understand imperial monument style of Romans and the necessity of creating large areas for huge constructions on a hill slope.

The Altar of Zeus, the Palaces of the kings of Pergamon, the Temple of Athena and next to it the Library, are all once important structures of Pergamon.

The Altar of Zeus was the most important monument in Pergamon once. The ruins of the Temple of Athena Goddess of War and Wisdom, and Library next to it are important structures too. This library was said to have 200 000 books in Hellenistic period. The Kings of Pergamon collected or produced such an amount of books. When their rival kings in Egypt gave up exporting papyrus, it did not stop them. Pergamon librarians started to use skins widely to make paper that is called parchment, “pergamon paper’’. Next move was production of paged books that took the place of the scrolls in time.    

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